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Oh Vey, Goyim!!!

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ID: 294f0  No.2767[View All]

At least one Sefer Torah should be placed on the Tebah (Bimah), during the Haqqafoth on Simhath Torah, as well as the Haqqafoth that are held at the conclusion of the Festival (Haqqafoth Shenioth). A G-d fearing man should hold it throughout the Haqqafoth. The custom of Rabbenu the Ari, z"l, was to circle the Tebah while holding a Sefer Torah.

Some congregations take the Sifrei Torah out to the street. This is permitted, since it is for the honor of the Torah. However, there must be a Minyan (quorum) of ten men present with it, in order to do this. The congregation must stand during the Haqqafoth. Sometimes this may take several hours, with the singing and dancing, and those who are elderly, unwell, and so on, are unable to remain standing for such a long period of time. In this case they should only stand during the actual Haqqafoth, and sit the rest of the time.

Clapping is permitted for the honor of the Torah, when rejoicing on Simhath Torah. This is true even when Simhath Torah falls on Shabbath (which it can do in the Land of Israel, and for the Haqqafoth done on Shemini 'Asereth in the Diaspora). It is, however, forbidden to play any musical instrument (other than during the Haqqafoth Shenioth, which are held after the Festival is over).

(See Ben Ish Hai, 1st year, Wezoth Habberakha, 18, 35. Dibrei Mordekhai [Eliyahu], Hagim, 55:26, 27, 29, 31)
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ID: 294f0  No.3024

After Maran Yosef Qaro, z"l, specifies when each of the morning blessings should be recited (see http://www.atorahminute.com/2018-12-24 ), he writes in the Shulhan 'Arukh that since, nowadays, one's hands are not clean after one has slept, and also because of those who are not learned and do not know how to say the blessings, the custom has become to say them in the Synagogue.

In fact, there are various customs concerning how and when they are said. The Rosh would say the blessings till 'Oter Yisrael Bethifara and then don his Tefillin. The Tur writes that after one has worn one's Tefillin, one should recite the blessings. In general, Ashkenazim wear the Tefillin and recite the Birkath HaTorah (morning blessings of the Torah), followed by Elo-kai, Neshama and the morning blessings. There are those who recite the blessings of 'Al Netilath Yadayim and Asher Yasar, in the morning, as soon as the opportunity for each arises, whereas others recite them before the blessings of the Torah.

The custom of the Ari, z"l, was to recite all the morning blessings in the morning, up to the 'Aqedah portion at the beginning of the Shahrith prayer. He then wore his Tallith Gadol and Tefillin and read the morning prayer. This was also the custom of the Rashash, z"l, (Shar'abi) and this is the custom of Sephardim, to read all the blessings in the morning, ending with the blessings on the Torah, before going to Synagogue.

(See Shulhan 'Arukh, O.H. 46:2. Mishnah Berurah, 46:11, 13. Kaf Hahayyim ibid., Oth 2, and Siman 25 oth

ID: 294f0  No.3026

One must be careful not to speak (many hold, not even think) words of Torah till one has said the morning blessings of the Torah. Rabbenu the Hida, z"l, states that (concerning those who wear their Tefillin before saying the blessings of the Torah), that if one wears one's Tefillin before the Torah blessings, one should not say the Pesuqim of We-erastikh Li. As mentioned previously (see http://www.atorahminute.com/2018-12-25 ), the custom of the Ari, z"l, as is practiced by Sephardim, was to recite all the morning blessings, including the Torah blessings, before wearing his Tefillin.

The Birkoth Hashahar (morning blessings) may be recited while seated or standing. In general, Ashkenazim stand for these blessings. Hakham Hayyim Falaji, 'a"h, writes in his Kaf Hahayyim (which predates the Kaf Hahayyim of Hakham Ya'aqob Sopher, 'a"h), that when reciting the morning blessings one may not be putting on one's clothes, taking care of any other matters, or walking to and fro.

Instead, one must be seated and concentrate intently on the blessings that one is reciting. In fact, the predominant custom among Sephardim is to recite the Birkoth Hashahar (morning blessings), while seated.

(See Qesher Guddal 5:31. Penei Yehoshuwa', Meghillah 21a. Yehawweh Da'ath 5:4)

ID: 294f0  No.3029

אִם בֵּן הוּא וַהֲמִתֶּן אֹתוֹ וְאִם בַּת הִוא וָחָיָה "if it's a boy, you shall kill him, but if it is a girl, you shall let her live" (Shemoth 1:16). Hakham Yosef Hayyim, 'a"h, comments in Addereth Eliyahu, that logically one would think that Pharaoh should have instructed the midwives to do the exact opposite, or to kill both the baby boys and girls. The same question applies to his order to cast the males into the Nile. Logically he should have commanded that all of them should be cast into the Nile.

When one thinks about it, it would appear to make more sense to tell the midwives to kill the girls and let the boys live. After all, since Pharaoh's intention was to prevent the children of Israel from becoming numerous, one must consider that one man is capable of making 100 women reproduce, whereas the reverse is not true, since a woman can only undergo one pregnancy at a time.

It would appear that the answer is that Pharaoh knew that the strength of the Jewish people lies in the fact there is peace among them. By causing there to be a shortage of males, one man would have very many wives. This, in turn, would create much discord, argument and jealousy among them. It behooves us to undo his intent and the intent of those who have subsequently attempted to follow in his footsteps, and work diligently on increasing the level of love and harmony among us.

(See Adereth Eliyahu, 1:16 [WeHinnei])

ID: 294f0  No.3031

There is a Torah prohibition of Bal Tosif, which means that one may not add to a Torah commandment. This would apply, for instance, to adding to the fringes on a Sissith, or adding to the four species on Sukkoth. It does not apply to any safeguard (Seyagh) to the Torah that was instituted by the Sages.

Just as there is a prohibition against Bal Tosif (adding to Torah commandments), so too, there is a prohibition of Bal Tighra', which means that it is forbidden to detract from a Torah commandment. The Rambam, z"l, is of the opinion that stating that a Rabbinical commandment is actually a Torah one, comes under the prohibition of Bal Tosif. Stating that a Torah commandment is a Rabbinical one, would fall under Bal Tighra'.

There is a practical issue with this on Friday nights. From the perspective of the Torah, one may sanctify the Shabbath (Qiddush), with words alone (using wine was instituted by the Rabbis). Those who say the Leshem Yihud before Qiddush on Friday night, must be particular to say "We are coming to fulfill the positive Torah commandment of sanctifying the Sabbath with words (לקים מצות עשה דאורייתא לקדש את השבת בדברים), and to fulfill the positive Rabbinical commandment of sanctifying with wine (לקים מצות עשה דרבנן לקדש על היין)".

(See Qol Eliyahu 9:3. Rambam, Mamrim 2:9)

ID: 294f0  No.3032

The holy Hakham, Rabbi Eli'ezer Papo, 'a"h, writes in Pele Yo'es that very many people keep Shabbath and "call it a delight", but it is painful that so many of them are not particular about avoiding speaking about mundane matters on Shabbath. In Yeshayahu (58:13), delighting in the Shabbath and not speaking about mundane matters, are juxtaposed in the same verse. From this we learn that only if you watch your speech, will you delight in G-d.

He comments that many people do not comprehend that speaking about mundane matters on Shabbath is considered to be a desecration of Shabbath. In truth, if we go back to the original source of keeping Shabbath, we will see it explained quite clearly.

The commandment to rest on Shabbath, the Torah tells us, is because G-d created the world in six days, and on the seventh, He rested. From this we learn that we must rest in the same manner that G-d rested. And how did He rest? He rested from speech, as it says in Tehillim (33:6), בדבר ה' שמים נעשו "Heaven was created by the 'word' of G-d".

(See Pele Yo'es, Shabbath)

ID: 294f0  No.3035

The portion of "WeAttah 'Athid Littelah Mimmeni" in the Elo-hai Neshamah of the morning blessings, refers to G-d taking one's soul during sleep and returning it upon awakening (see http://www.atorahminute.com/2018-12-19 ). According to the Kabbalists, however, the soul of a child under thirteen does not ascend when he goes to sleep. If so, it might appear that one should not allow children to read this praise in the morning blessings.

It says in Ben Ish Hai, however, that this is not a valid reason for not permitting them to say it. On the contrary, children are included with the adults and, as a result, may also recite this blessing, because the blessing is relevant to the adults whom they are included with. This is in the same way that a person recites all the morning blessings, even though some of them may not apply to him personally.

Even though the blessing is recited in the first person, it does not negate the fact that a child may still recite it. This is no different to a blessing that an adult recites in the first person even though it doesn't apply to him. Examples of this are the blessings of "HaMa'abir" (Who removes the bonds of sleep from my eyes), that one recites even if one did not sleep, and "She'asah Li Kol Sorki" (Who provided all my needs for me), even if he is a mourner and not wearing leather shoes. The same rule applies to children regarding reciting the blessing.

(See Ben Ish Hai, 1st year, Parashath WaYesheb, Oth 1)

ID: 294f0  No.3039

The Berakha (blessing) Asher Yasar, in the morning, should be immediately followed by Elo-hai Neshama. Elo-hai Neshamah does not start with the normal formula of "Barukh" etc., and needs a blessing to be recited before it (Berakha HaSemukha Lehaberta, according to the Rosh). Sephardim follow this Halakha as do some Ashkenazim, whereas other Ashkenazim do not. In addition to the reason mentioned, there is also a Kabbalistic reason to do so, according to Sha'ar HaKawwanoth.

Asher Yasar is recited after each occasion when one has used the bathroom. According to the Rama, z"l, the custom for Ashkenazim is to recite Asher Yasar in the appropriate place in the morning blessings, irrespective of whether one has used the bathroom or not. Sephardim should recite this blessing, only after using the Bathroom.

Hakham Yosef Hayyim, 'a"h, writes in 'Od Yosef Hai, that if one does not have a need to use the bathroom, one should skip Asher Yasar and start Elo-hai Neshamah, even though it will not be preceded by an actual blessing.

(See Shulhan 'Arukh with Rama, 4:1, 6:1, 2. Rosh Teshuboth 4:1. Ben Ish Hai, 1st year, Wayyesheb, Oth 2. 'Od Yosef Hai, ibid., Oth 7. )

ID: 294f0  No.3043

The ending of the blessing of Elo-hai Neshamah is "HaMahazir Neshamoth Lifgharim Methim" (Who returns souls to dead bodies). How do we understand this?

It says in Ben Ish Hai that 'Paghar' (פגר), which is the root of the word 'Lifgharim', means cessation from activity. The fact that it uses the word 'Methim' which means dead, is referring to the fact that sleep is considered to be one sixtieth of death.

This blessing, which thanks G-d for restoring our souls to us in the morning, is actually a reference to the Tehiyath HaMethim (revival of the dead), in the future, as is explained in the Siddur of Rab Ya'aqob Emden, 'a"h.

(See Ben Ish Hai, 1st year, Wayyesheb, Oth 2)

ID: 294f0  No.3046

וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כֵן הַחַרְטֻמִּים בְּלָטֵיהֶם לְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַכִּנִּים וְלֹא יָכֹלוּ "And the sorcerers did likewise with their incantations, to bring out lice, but they could not" (Shemoth 8:14). The sorcerers were able to reproduce the plagues of the blood and the frogs. What changed, that they were unable to produce lice?

The Ramban (Nachmanides), z"l, explains that the first two plagues, of blood and frogs, did not entail creating a new entity. For instance, the Torah tells us that the Egyptian sorcerers merely "brought up frogs", not that they created new ones.

In the case of the lice, however, G-d commanded that Aharon HaKohen, 'a"h, would strike the dust of the earth which would turn into lice. Dust doesn't turn into lice and that is why the sorcerers were unable to create lice. Only the Creator of the Universe, the Holy One, blessed be He, can create new creatures. That was the difference between the plague of the lice and the preceding ones.

(See Ramban on the Torah, Waera)

ID: 294f0  No.3047

Does a person fulfill his obligation of Qiddush, if he hears it from another person but doesn't understand the words? One must first understand that if a person recites Qiddush in a language that he is familiar with, other than Hebrew, he fulfills his obligation. If he reads it in a language he does not understand, other than Hebrew, he does not fulfill his obligation.

Similarly, if anyone hears it in a language he does not understand, other than Hebrew, he does not fulfill his obligation. This is in keeping with what is mentioned in the Shulhan 'Arukh that if a Meghillah is written in a non-Jewish language, only someone who is familiar with that language can fulfill his obligation by reading it (see http://www.atorahminute.com/2010-02-23 ).

When the Qiddush is recited in Hebrew for people who do not understand the Hebrew words, it is appropriate for the one reciting it to first explain to them, in a language that they understand, the content of what he will be saying. However, since there are those who say that if it is recited in Hebrew, one fulfills one's obligation even if one does not understand the words, then Bedi'abad (after the fact), if the words were not explained, the listeners will still have fulfilled their obligation.

(See Shulhan 'Arukh 193:1. 690:8, 9. Kaf Hahayim, ibid, Oth 56. Qol Eliyahu 9:4

ID: 294f0  No.3050

There are both "do's" and "don'ts" regarding speech on Shabbath. Included in the "don'ts" is speaking about something that is prohibited on Shabbath and many stumble in this area. The Tosafoth (Shabbath 113b) write that one should even minimize speaking about things that are required on Shabbath. One should be aware that it was with great difficulty that the Hakhamim even permitted greeting another person on Shabbath and learn from this how important it is to not speak about matters forbidden on Shabbath.

Asking a non-Jew to do a Melakha (forbidden Shabbath labor) is included in the "don'ts" of speech on Shabbath. Even if the non-Jew does a forbidden labor for the Jew without asking him, it is likewise forbidden to benefit from it. There are many instances of this where people benefit from the Melakha of a non-Jew and treat it as if it is permitted. One must be very careful in this area.

What one must be particular to do on Shabbath, however, is to study both the Written Law as well as the Oral Law (Torah SheBikhthab and Torah SheBe'al Peh). These hint at HaQadosh Barukh Hu and His holy Presence (HaQadosh Barukh Hu and His Shekhinah). This is important because Shabbath is the time of their unification.

(See Pele Yo'es, Shabbath)

ID: 294f0  No.3053

The morning blessing of HaNothen Lasekhwi Binah, blesses G-d Who gives the rooster understanding to distinguish between day and night. This refers to the ability of the rooster to distinguish between midday and midnight. This is an ability which is above that of other animals who can tell the difference between day and night.

The following question arises. If someone is unable to hear, may he recite this blessing? Nowadays, it is recited together with the other morning blessings, but it was instituted to be recited after one hears the rooster crow in the morning.

The answer is that there is no question that even if someone is deaf, R"L, he still recites the blessing. This is in keeping with the opinion of Rabbenu the Ari, z"l, that all the morning blessings are recited by everyone, since they refer to occurrences in the world every day, and are not specifically for the individual.

(See Ben Ish Hai, 1st year, Wayyesheb, Oth 4. Sha'ar HaKawwanoth, 2d)

ID: 294f0  No.3056

The morning blessing of Poqeah Iwrim, is thanks to G-d for opening the eyes of the blind. This is referring to the fact that a person's eyes are shut during sleep and when he awakes, he opens his eyes and sees. In this blessing also (see Understanding HaNothen Lasekhwi http://www.atorahminute.com/2019-01-07 ), there is a difference of opinion as to whether one who is blind may recite this blessing.

The Hida, z"l, the Mishnah Berurah and others are of the opinion that it should be recited. In truth, since there is a difference of opinion, we would think that it should not be recited if a person is unable to see (on account of Sefeq Berakhoth Lehaqel - when there is a doubt, the blessing should not be recited). In fact, even one who is unable to see should recite this blessing.

One reason is that the opinion of the Ari, z"l, is that all the morning blessings are recited by everyone, since they refer to occurrences in the world every day, and are not specifically for the individual, and we do not say Sefeq Berakhoth against the Ari, z"l. Another reason is that our Rabbis, z"l, tell us that even one who is unable to see benefits from the fact that others around him do see and can help him.

(See Shi'urei Berakha 46:14. See Ben Ish Hai, 1st year, Wayyesheb, Oth 5. Mishnah Berurah 46:25)

ID: 294f0  No.3059

At night we are not upright, but crouched or bent over in our beds. As part of the morning blessings (Birkhoth Hashahar) we recite the blessing of thanks to G-d, of Zoqef Kefufim (Who straightens the bent). If someone is unwell or bedridden, Heaven forbid, he still recites this blessing.

It should be noted that the Shulhan 'Arukh is concerned about the opinion of the Rambam, that one for whom this blessing does not apply personally, should not recite it. As such, the Shulhan 'Arukh states that it should be recited without Shem Umalkhuth (G-d's Name and Kingdom).

The Rama, z'l, however, comments in his gloss, that the custom is to recite it, since we are blessing G-d for the needs of the world and not just for the individual. This is in keeping with the opinion of the Ari, z"l, mentioned previously (see http://www.atorahminute.com/2019-01-07 ), and is the accepted custom.

(See Shulhan 'Arukh with Rama, 46:8. Ben Ish Hai, 1st year, Wayyesheb, Oth 6)

ID: 294f0  No.3061

וִיהִי חֹשֶׁךְ עַל אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם "And there shall be darkness over the land of Egypt" (Shemoth 10:21). We learn from this Parasha how important it is not to cause someone embarrassment, however wrong his actions may be. On account of His incredible love for 'Am Yisrael, G-d goes out of His way not to bring any shame or disgrace on them.

There were wicked people among the Children of Israel, who wished to remain slaves under the hand of Pharaoh. The punishment for this was death, but G-d did not mete it out right away. Instead, He waited till the plague of darkness. During the plague the Egyptians were unable to see and unable to speak, on account of the thick darkness that surrounded them.

It was only then that G-d caused them to perish, during the three days of darkness. Even though they were wicked and deserving of the punishment, G-d did not wish to bring upon them disgrace, by making it known that they were wicked and transgressed the word of G-d. If G-d acted in this manner towards those who transgressed His honor, we must learn a great lesson from this, not to embarrass anyone, however much we may feel that they deserve it.

(see Barukh Ta'am, Parashath Bo)

ID: 294f0  No.3064

There are different types of Muqseh on Shabbath. One category is Muqseh Mehamath Gufo which refers to something that doesn't have a status of a vessel, such as rocks, branches and the like. This category of Muqseh is forbidden to be moved, even if the person is interested in using the place where it is placed, or to use it for a permitted usage. (A permitted usage would be, for example, moving a rock to sit in its place or to use a rock to crack open walnuts.)

One of the exceptions to this rule is if one has a vessel that broke (such as a barrel) and the pieces still have a usage (for example to cover other vessels), even thought they are just pieces of wood that are usually Muqseh, since they came from something that has the status of a vessel it doesn't lose that status and is not considered to be Muqseh, as would a regular piece of wood.

Maran, z"l, writes in Beth Yosef, that the only time the broken piece is permitted is when the original vessel is no longer usable for its original use. If the vessel is still usable for its original use, however, there are certain cases where the broken pieces may not be used on Shabbath.

(See Beth Yosef 308. Maghen Abraham 308:17. Mishnah Berurah 308:32. Rama 308:6)

ID: 294f0  No.3076

According to Maran, z"l in the Beth Yosef, the only time that a broken piece from a vessel may be used is when the original vessel from which it broke, is no longer usable for its original use. But if the vessel is still usable for its original usage then the broken piece is Muqseh because it is Nolad (something that was created on shabbath)

However, the Beth Yosef says that if the broken piece has the same type of usage as the original vessel, (for example, if a piece broke off a barrel and that piece is also suitable for containing things like the barrel) then it is not Nolad and is permitted. The Maamar Mordechai says that this is also the ruling of Maran in Shulhan Arukh.

The Maghen Abraham and Darkei Moshe and others argue on this ruling of the Beth Yosef. Their opinion is that even if the original vessel is still usable, the part that broke off is permitted to be used as long as it has a usage. This is true, even if isn't the same type of usage as the original vessel. This is also the opinion of the Mishnah Berurah for Ashkenazim.

(To be continued).

(See Beth Yosef 308. Maghen Abraham 308:17. Mishnah Berurah 308:32. Rama 308:6)

ID: 294f0  No.3080

We mentioned that Ashkenazim may use a broken piece of a vessel, even if the original vessel is still usable, and even if the use for the broken piece is different from the original use of the vessel. Hakham Yosef Hayyim, 'a"h, rules that if the vessel is still usable and the broken piece is only usable for a different type of usage (for example a piece of a barrel that broke and the broken piece cannot contain anything only cover a vessel) then the broken piece is Muqseh.

This goes in accordance with ruling of Maran the Beth Yosef. The Kaf Hahayyim also says that one should try to be stringent like the Beth Yosef. Sephardim should be strict in this matter.

We mentioned that the only time that a vessel which broke on Shabbath is permitted, is when it has some usage. The Rama, z"l, qualifies this and writes that even if the broken pieces do not have any usage what so ever, if they can harm someone, it is permitted to move them, even with one's hands. Therefore, if glass breaks in a place where people walk and they can get harmed, one can pick up the glass even with ones hands.

(See Ben Ish Hai, 2nd year, Miqqes, Oth 10. Kaf Hahayyim 308:66. Rama, 308:6)

ID: 294f0  No.3088

There is another set of circumstances which permits one to use an item, that doesn't have the status of a vessel, on Shabbath. The Shulhan 'Arukh writes that one may use a rock or the like on Shabbath, by designating it, before Shabbath, for use on Shabbath.

The way we designate it for use on Shabbath, depends on what one is planning on using it for. If one wants to designate a rock for a use that is common to use a rock for, then all one needs to do is to designate it for that purpose, even for that Shabbath alone. The Shulhan Arukh adds that there are those who are more stringent and require one to designate it for that use, permanently.

If one is designating a rock for a use that one does not ordinarily use a rock for, then one must designate it for that use permanently. The Shulhan Arukh adds that there are those that are more strict in this case and require one to do some actual action or change to the rock, in order to render it a vessel.

(See Shulhan 'Arukh 308:22)

ID: 294f0  No.3092

Another type of "Muqseh Mahamath Gufo" which is not permitted to be moved even if one needs it's place, is a lit candle. Since the flame is not a vessel and the candle is there to support the flame the entire candle and candlestick are Muqseh Mahamath Gufo. Even when the flame goes out the Shulhan 'Arukh writes that the candle is forbidden to be moved even for the need of using its place.

The reason for this is that since it was lit during Ben Hashemashoth (twighlight), and at that point it's status was the same as that of the flame, that status of muqseh remains the entire Shabbath. Maran, z"l, writes further in the Shulhan 'Arukh, that if one wants to move the candle after it goes out, a person may do so by making a stipulation.

He must stipulate before sunset that he should be allowed to move the candle after the flame is extinguished. The Hida, 'a"h, writes that this the Minagh of the Sephardim. The Rema, z"l, however rules that making this stipulation does not help and one is not allowed to move the candle even after it goes out.

(See Shulhan 'Arukh 279:1, 2, 4)

ID: 294f0  No.3097

וִידֵי מֹשֶׁה כְּבֵדִים וַיִּקְחוּ אֶבֶן וַיָּשִׂימוּ תַחְתָּיו וַיֵּשֶׁב עָלֶיהָ "And the hands of Moses were heavy and they took a stone and placed it under him, and he sat upon it" (Shemoth 17:12). When a community is undergoing suffering, even those who are not affected by the suffering must also share in the pain of those who are. We first see this from Yoseph HaSaddiq, 'a"h, (Joseph).

The Torah tells us that even though Joseph was not harmed by the famine, and did not experience any hunger because he was a king and everything was provided for him, nevertheless, he did not get close to his wife for the entire duration of the famine. This was so that, he too, would feel the pain of those suffering of the indignity of the famine.

From this Parasha we also see the same with Moshe Rabbenu, 'a"h, where the Torah tells us that they placed a stone under him and he sat upon it. Why did he sit on a stone? Couldn't anyone bring him a cushion or a pillow to sit on? The answer is that even though Moshe Rabbenu, 'a"h, had no doubts that he would be saved from the war with 'Amaleq, and would cause Israel to win, nevertheless, he felt the need to share in the pain and suffering of the people.

(See Barukh Ta'am, Parashath Beshallah)

ID: 294f0  No.3100

Should a mourner change out of his mourning clothes that he is wearing, for Shabbath? The custom is that a mourner does not sit in his normal seat in the Synagogue during the year of the passing of a parent. The custom of the Ari, z"l, was not to change his place on Shabbath, but to sit in the seat that he always sat in, every Shabbath. The reason was that by sitting in a different seat, he would be publicly observing the laws of mourning on Shabbath, which is forbidden.

Based on this, it says in the Kaf Hahayyim that we should learn from this custom of Rabbenu the Ari, z"l, that a mourner should change his clothes for Shabbath, because if he doesn't do so, it would be as if he were mourning on Shabbath.

Rabbenu the Hid"a, 'a"h, writes that a mourner must change his clothes for Shabbath, because otherwise, it would be a case of observing the practices of mourning on Shabbath. The reason is that there is no poor person who doesn't change into better clothes for Shabbath, and not doing so would make it obvious that it was on account of mourning.

(See Kaf Hahayyim 262:27)

ID: 294f0  No.3102

Tu Bishbat, the 15th of Shebat, is the Rosh Hashanah (new year) of the trees. It falls during the period of the Shobabim, where many righteous fast. On Tu Bishbat itself, however, fasting is not permitted.

The calculations for tithing of Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni are based on Tu Bishbat. If a fruit ripened before Tu Bishbat, it is considered as belonging to the previous year for the purpose of Ma'aser, but if it ripens after Tu Bishbat, it belongs to the upcoming year.

One should make the effort to eat the 30 fruits that are mentioned in Peri 'Es Hadar. If that is not possible, one should eat at least 12. If for some reason, even that is not possible, one should endeavor to eat the fruits that the Land of Israel is praised over. They are: olives, dates, grapes, figs, pomegranates, and one should also eat some Mezonoth.

(See Peri 'Es Hadar, Haqdamah. Ben Ish Hai, Parashath Pinhas, 1st year, Haqdamah. Maamar Mordechai of HaRab Mordechai Eliyahu, 'a"h Hilkhoth Haggim 61:13-14)

ID: 294f0  No.3108

It says in the Yerushalmi, in tractate Qiddushin that one will have to give judgement on that which he saw and didn't eat. There are those who quote this as the source for the custom of eating fruits on Tu Bishbat. The Kaf Hahayim quotes the Sefer Tashbes who explains this Yerushalmi as meaning that the importance of eating what we see is so that we can make more Berakhoth (blessings). Therefore, at least once a year, we make an effort to eat the fruits and make Berakhoth on them.

There is a nice hint to Tu Bishbat, which is said in the name of the Hatham Sofer. We know that the Makkoth (plagues) given to the Egyptians, were given once a month. On the 15h of Adar, the Makkath Hoshekh (the plague of darkness) was given. In that plague it says that there was an intense darkness in Egypt, but for all the Jews there was light. This corresponds to the rejoicing we have on that day, which is Purim, as it says in the Meghilla, "LaYehudim Haytha Orah WeSimha" (the Jews had light and happiness).

The plague of Arbeh (locust), which was a month prior to this, was on the 15th of Shebat (Tu Bishbat). It says regarding this plague (Shemoth 10:15), "Welo Nothar Kol Yereq" (no green thing remained in the trees). Based on that we rejoice with the eating of fruits to remember Hashem's miracles.

(See Kaf Hahayyim 225, Oth 23)

ID: 294f0  No.3109

As we have previously mentioned there is a dispute between the Shulhan 'Arukh and the Rema, z"l, whether stipulating that one will move a candle after it goes out on Shabbath, permits one to move the candles after they go out ( http://www.atorahminute.com/2019-01-16 ).

Even though the Rema is stringent, nevertheless, he says that in any circumstance where one is permitted to move the candles after they are no longer burning according to Maran, z"l, of the Shulhan Arukh, then he too allows one to ask a non-Jew to move the candles. He says that this is the Minhagh amongst the Ashkenazim.

The Hida, z”l, wites in Birkei Yosef, that according to the custom of Sephardim, that stipulating allows one to move the candles after they are extinguished, it is sufficient to stipulate once a year that any candle that one lights, on any Shabbath of that year, one is lighting on condition that when it goes out he will be permitted to move it. The Kaf Hahayyim brings this down as well. The Pele Yo'es had this custom also, and he writes that his custom was to make this stipulation before Shabbath Shuba.

(See Birkei Yosef 308:4-6. Kaf Hahayyim, ibid., Oth 16-18)

ID: 294f0  No.3110

Maran, z"l, writes in the Shulhan Arukh, that if one has a Keli (an object with a use) whose door fell off, that door is permitted to be moved whether it fell off before or on Shabbath. The reason for this is that since it is going to be reattached to the original object, it doesn't lose its status of being a vessel. As a result, it is not Muqseh on Shabbath.

This does not include doors of a house, however, because a house doesn't have a status of a vessel. As such, the fact that one intends to reattach the door to the house, doesn't give the door the status of a vessel (since the house was not a vessel in the first place). Based on this Halakha the Menuhath Ahaba states that if a button falls of an article of clothing, one is allowed to pick the button up and put it in a safe place. Since the button will be going back to its original article of clothing, the button does not lose its status of a vessel and is allowed to be moved on Shabbath.

It is important to note that if one isn't planning on sewing it back to that article of clothing, then it is Muqseh on Shabbath. The opinion of Rav Moshe Feinsten, z"l, however, is that since the button has no use the way it is now, it is Muqseh and it is not similar to the case of the Shulhan Arukh. In the case mentioned by the Shulhan 'Arukh, the door can be used for something else, like covering something, and even though you may have no intention of doing so, it is better than the case of button which has no use other than being reattached to a garment.

(See Shulhan 'Arukh 308:8. Menuhath Ahaba ח"א פי"ב אות מ. Rav Moshe Feinstein אוח ח"ה סי'כב אות כ)

ID: 294f0  No.3112

בַּחֹ֨דֶשׁ֙ הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֔י לְצֵ֥את בְּנֵֽי יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם בַּיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה בָּ֖אוּ מִדְבַּ֥ר סִינָֽי "On the third month when the Children of Israel left the land of Egypt, on this day they came into the wilderness of Sinai" (Shemoth 19:1). Rashi states that it should have said ביום ההוא "on that day", so why does it say ביום הזה "on this day"? He answers that it is to let us know that the words of Torah [that were given to us at Mount Sinai], should be as fresh for us, as if they were given to us today.

It goes without saying that the advances in technology, since Benei Yisrael stood at Har Sinai (Mount Sinai), are huge. Some people claim that, in view of this, many of the laws that were given then, do not apply anymore. Maran Mordekhai Eliyahu, z"l, mentions the fact that lighting fire in those days involved striking two flints together (see http://www.atorahminute.com/2018-03-01 ). Then they had to make sure that it ignited the straw, and was a major undertaking. Today, flicking a light switch takes less effort than opening the front door to go to Synagogue.

Be that as it may. The Torah tells us that we may not decide that any of the laws do not apply anymore. We cannot use the argument that what once seemed like Melakha or work, no longer applies anymore. On the contrary, we have to consider it as if every law of the Torah was given to us on this day, today, and will be so till the end of time.

(See Dibrei Mordekhai, Parashath Yithro, Parparaoth, BaYom HaZeh)

ID: 294f0  No.3116

In the Qiddush of Friday night, before reciting the blessing on the wine, we add the words, "Sabri Maranan" (depending on custom, one may have different versions). Wine may sometimes have a negative connotation. It was, at one time, given to people before carrying out a death sentence.

The term "Sabri Maranan", is a request for those present to pay attention and effectively ask them what the purpose of the wine is. Those present at the table respond, "LeHayyim", meaning that this wine is for the purpose of giving life.

The question then is, if one is reciting Qiddush on one's own, should one include the words "Sabri Maranan", or, since there is no one present to answer, should one omit the words altogether? It says is Qol Eliyahu, that even one who is reciting Qiddush for himself, with no one else present, should say the words "Sabri Maranan". One should say it on account of the two angels who accompany a person every Friday night and are present during the Qiddush.

(See Qol Eliyahu, 9:5)

ID: 294f0  No.3118

The Berakha (blessing) of Zoqef Kefufim (straightening those who are bent), must be recited after the blessing of Mattir Asurim (freeing the bound). According to the Shulhan 'Arukh, if one recited Zoqef Kefufim before Mattir Asurim, one should no longer say the blessing of Mattir Asurim.

The Be-er Heteb says that this is because giving thanks for 'straightening the bent', includes 'freeing the bound'. However, not everyone agrees. The Maharshal and the Ba"h disagree and say that even if one said Zoqef Kefufim, one should still recite Mattir Asurim.

It says in 'Od Yosef Hai, that one should recite the blessing of Mattir Asurim, with G-d's Name and Kingdom, even if one said Zoqef Kefufim first. The reason is because of the opinion of the Ari, z"l, that all the morning blessings are recited by everyone, since they refer to occurrences in the world every day, and are not specifically for the individual.

(See Shulhan 'Arukh 46:5. Be-er Heteb, ibid., 9. 'Od Yosef Hai, 1st year, Wayyesheb, Oth 4)

ID: 294f0  No.3126

The Hayyei Adam says that if one started saying the blessing of Zoqef Kefufim and said "Barukh Attah H' ", but realized that he should first say Mattir Asurim, he may not change it to Mattir Asurim, but must continue saying Zoqef Kefufim, even though he will no longer be able to say Mattir Asurim any more.

The Ben Ish Hai disagrees and says that one should not say Zoqef Kefufim, but should say Mattir Asurim instead, and then recite the blessing of Zoqef Kefufim in the correct order. It should be noted that this is Bedi'abad (after the fact), because one should know exactly which blessing one is saying before starting to bless.

It says in 'Od Yosef Hai that if, in error, one started saying the Berakha (blessing) of Zoqef Kefufim before saying Mattir Asurim, and while one was saying the words Zoqef Kefufim, one realized the error and said "Mattir Asurim" right away, it is considered as if one said both blessings. In other words, if one said the blessing and ended it with the words "Zoqef Kefufim, Mattir Asurim", even though one only said the beginning portion of the blessing once, it is considered in all respects as being two full blessings.

(See Shulhan 'Arukh Ben Ish Hai, 1st year, Wayyesheb, Oth 7. 'Od Yosef Hai, ibid., Oth 5)

ID: 294f0  No.3128

After the Berakha (blessing) of Malbish 'Arumim (Who clothes the naked), one recites the blessing of HaNothen Laya'ef Kowah (Who gives strength to the weary). It is interesting to note that the Shulhan 'Arukh is not in favor of saying this Berakha, however, it is the custom among both Sephardim and Ashkenazim to recite it.

According to the Kabbalah, both these blessings were instituted in reference to the clothing of the soul. There are some people who, through their sins, lose the clothing of their souls completely. The Holy One blessed be He, in His infinite kindness, gives them new clothing for their souls which are naked.

On the other hand, there are others who do not sin so much. Their clothes are weakened, but not removed entirely. G-d, in His mercy, gives them strength every morning, to fortify them when he returns their souls to them in the morning.

(See Shulhan 'Arukh, with Rama, 46:6. Ben Ish Hai, 1st year, Wayyesheb, Oth 8)

ID: 294f0  No.3133

The simple understanding of the blessing "She'asah Li Kol Sorki" (Who provides me all my needs), is that it refers to wearing shoes. One who is barefoot is unable to attend to his needs and the needs of his household. Once he wears shoes he is able to go about his business, wherever he wishes, and it is as if he has already been provided with all his needs, as is explained in the Shalmei Sibbur.

In 'Od Yosef Hai, Hakham Yosef Hayyim, 'a"h, expresses surprise at this opinion. He comments that the benefit that one obtains by wearing shoes cannot be compared to the benefit that one gets from, for example, "Poqeah 'Iwrim" (opening the eyes of the blind), or "Mattir Asurim" (freeing the imprisoned), and so on. In those cases, a man would be unable to carry out his affairs if it weren’t for the blessings. In the case of shoes, however, the benefit is minimal. Many people in the world walk barefoot and take care of their matters. Not only that, but all these blessings must be recited daily, even if one doesn't leave one's room. If one remains in one's room, there is no hardship involved in not wearing shoes.

He gives a detailed explanation that the reason is Kabbalistic in nature, and connects this blessing with the blessings of Malbish 'Arumim (Who clothes the naked) and HaNothen Laya'ef Kowah (Who gives strength to the weak), as mentioned previously ( http://www.atorahminute.com/2019-01-29 ).

(See Ben Ish Hai, 1st year, Wayyesheb, Oth 9. 'Od Yosef Hai, ibid., Oth 8)

ID: 294f0  No.3135

According to the Ari, z"l, the 18 morning Berakhoth (blessings), from 'Al Netilath Yadayim, till the last blessing on the Torah, are recited because of the blessings that occur in the world, and not specifically to the individual. The exceptions to this rule are, " 'Al Netilath Yadayim", "Asher Yasar", and "She'asah Li Kol Sorki". The latter is not recited on Tish'ah BeAb or Yom Kippur, since no one wears shoes on those days.

This is the custom of Sephardim and some Ashkenazim, not to recite "She'asah Li Kol Sorki" on those fast days. It was also the custom of the Gaon of Vilna. However, he recited the blessing at night, when the fast was over, when he wore his shoes. The Ben Ish Hai comments that according to the Kabbalah, this blessing should not be recited at night and rules in Rab Pe'alim that it should not be recited at all on those fast days.

The Mishnah Berurah, on the other hand, is in favor of reciting the blessing even on a fast day where one does not wear shoes. This is the practice followed by many Ashkenazim.

(See Rab Pe'alim 1:54, 2:8. Ben Ish Hai, 1st year, Wayyesheb, Oth 9. 'Od Yosef Hai, ibid., Oth 8. Kaf Hahayyim 46, Oth 17. Tur, O.H. 613. Ma'aseh Rab 9. Mishnah Berurah 554:31)

ID: 294f0  No.3137

וְהִגִּישׁוֹ אֶל הַדֶּלֶת אוֹ אֶל הַמְּזוּזָה וְרָצַע אֲדֹנָיו אֶת אָזְנוֹ בַּמַּרְצֵעַ וַעֲבָדוֹ לְעֹלָם "And he shall bring him to the door, or to the door post, and his master shall drive an awl through his ear, and he shall serve him forever" (Shemoth 21:6). The Gemara of Qiddushin tells us that the reason that the ear is the part of the body that was chosen, is because it heard on Mount Sinai, "כי לי בני ישראל עבדים" (that Benei Yisrael would be servants to G-d). And the ear that heard that we were to be servants to G-d and not servants of servants, went and acquired a master for himself.

It asks in Ben Yehoyada', why Hazal said such a thing. Nowhere in the 10 commandments does such a phrase appear. It appears much later in Sefer Wayyiqra. He answers that while it is true that those words were not said, nevertheless, the sense can be found in the first commandment. It says, "I am the L-rd your G-d who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage". What was the reason to mention both Egypt and bondage? Surely we would have understood one from the other.

The answer is that G-d mentions both to make it clear to us that the reason for taking us out of Egypt was in order to free us from slavery. The reason for that, was so that we could be servants of G-d, alone. We see from this, that even though the words that Benei Yisrael would be servants to G-d were not actually in the 10 commandments, the meaning was clear from the first commandment.

(See Ben Yehoyada', Qiddushin 22b)

ID: 294f0  No.3141

It is well known that a person is never satisfied with the money he makes. If he has one hundred, he wants to add to it and make it two hundred, and so on. While in monetary matters, one needs to temper this desire, this same concept is very important in the spiritual realm.

We are commanded to add to Shabbath and Yom Kippur, in order to add from the profane to the holy. The Pele Yo'es comments that this is not something that applies only to Shabbath and Yom Kippur, but to all matters pertaining to Torah commandments. A person sanctifies himself by even keeping away from things that are permitted to him.

One must never be satisfied with the Torah and Miswoth that one does, but must constantly strive to increase. Having said that, however, there is a danger, which we sometimes witness, where the additions that one takes on become so important, that one loses track of what the actual Halakha is. One must always consider carefully all the additions that one takes on, and ensure that they do not negatively affect or dilute the importance of the actual Halakhoth (laws).

(See Pele Yo'es, Tosefeth)

ID: 294f0  No.3144

Based on the fact that many are of the opinion that the Berakha (blessing) of שעשה לי כל צורכי "She'asah Li Kol Sorki" may not be said on Tish'ah BeAb and Yom Kippur, because we do not wear leather shoes, we might think that a mourner may not recite it either (see http://www.atorahminute.com/2019-01-31 ).

Based on the Ari, z"l, however, who says that these blessings are not connected to the individual, but to the custom of the world, the blessing must be recited by a mourner during the seven days where leather shoes are prohibited, because the rest of the world are wearing shoes.

If someone is an Onen (one who lost an immediate relative, but before burial), and unable to recite the Birkoth HaShahar blessings in the morning, he should do so after the funeral. If the funeral is at night, however, he should not recite them at night. Similarly, one who forgot to recite the morning blessings, should recite them when he remembers, even if he has already prayed Shahrith or Minha. In this case also, they should not be recited once it becomes night.

(See Rab Pe'alim 1:54, 2:8. Ben Ish Hai, 1st year, Wayyesheb, Oth 9)

ID: 294f0  No.3149

The three blessings of "Shello 'Asani Ghoy, Shello 'Asani 'Abed, Shello 'Asani Isha", are all written in the negative form. They do not say, "for making me a Jew, a free man and a man", but say, for not making me a non-Jew, a slave or a woman". What is the reason?

Hakham Yosef Hayyim, 'a"h, writes that these three blessings show our acceptance of the additional commandments incumbent on the one who reads them, vis-a-vis those who do not have the same amount of obligations. Along the same lines, the Maghen Abraham says that it is to praise G-d for different levels of Miswoth. If we would praise G-d "for making me a free man", that would not indicate that we have more commandments than one who is not free.

The Taz comments that if we said it in the positive, one might mistakenly think that non-Jews or women are on a lower level. By stating it in the negative, we are saying that all of G-d's creations are required and have their own purpose in the world. The reason for blessing G-d is because one's obligation is higher than the other's. It says in 'Od Yosef Hai, that the reason for stating the blessings in the negative, is Kabbalistic.

(See Ben Ish Hai, 1st year, Wayyesheb, Oth 10. 'Od Yosef Hai, ibid., Oth 9. Maghen Abraham, Oraha Hayyim 46:9. Taz, ibid., 4)

ID: 294f0  No.3152

As we have previously mentioned things that don't have a status of a vessel are Muqseh on Shabbath. Another example where this Halakha is found, is when someone is eating fruits, nuts, eggs, meat and the like. As long as it is food, obviously there is no problem of Muqseh. The question arises after one has finished eating and all that is left are the pits, seeds, shells or peels.

The Shulhan Arukh says that if what is left over is fit to be fed to an animal, one may remove it from the table, even with one's bare hands. If the remnants are not fit to feed an animal, then they are Muqseh. The Shulhan Arukh explains that one may tilt the table or the table cloth until they fall on the floor.

If however, one needs the space around the table to walk, and the like, (which is the the most likely scenario, assuming that we are not speaking about only a small seed or the like), one may raise the table or table cloth and let the shells and other remnants fall in an appropriate place. If however, one has bread on the table, in addition to the pits and shells, then one may move the table or table cloth to the place where one wants to dispose of the shells, even if one has no need for the area around the table.

(See Shulhan 'Arukh, 308:27)

ID: 294f0  No.3157

"And you shall make for Me a Sanctuary, and I shall dwell amongst you" (Shemoth 25:8). One sometimes hears certain people complain that the Rabbis added laws that were not given by the Torah. It says in Benayahu on the Torah that G-d gave us the Miswoth (commandments), but it is up to us to show Him that we desire to do them of our own volition and not because we were forced or are fearful of retribution, Heaven forbid.

It says in the Gemara of Shabbath (14b), that when King Solomon instituted the laws of 'Erub and Netilath Yadayim (ritual washing of hands), a Heavenly voice proclaimed, "My son, if your heart is wise, my heart will be glad". By all these stringencies and additions to the laws that G-d commanded, we demonstrate that we are willingly performing the commandments that G-d has given us, and not because we were fearful or forced.

G-d is saying in this verse that when the Jewish people demonstrate their desire for the performance of the Miswoth, by adding to what is holy, beyond that which is required, G-d responds measure for measure. He makes their profane holy, by dwelling among them and resting His Shekhinah (Holy Presence) on them.

(See Benayahu on the Torah)

ID: 294f0  No.3160

The reason we said that one is permitted to tilt the table cloth and let the shells, peels and the like fall on Shabbath, is because one is not moving the items with one's hands, and also because one needs the space on the table. There are other exceptions where one may move shells, bones and the like off a table.

The Taz says that the same applies to a stick or the like and therefore allows one to move the shells off the table with a knife. This is also the ruling of the Kaf Hahayyim and the Mishnah Berura.

Another exception for moving bones is in a case where there is still some meat remaining on the bone. Since that meat is edible, one may move the entire bone because of the meat remaining on it. This is true even if one has no intention of eating the meat, but rather intends to throw it out. Since it is edible it is permitted to be moved.

(See Taz, Siman 308. Kaf Hahayyim, 308, Oth 184. Mishnah Berurah, ibid., 115)

ID: 294f0  No.3162

The Berakha (blessing) that one makes on wine, is Borei Peri HaGefen. If one drinks the required minimum amount, one is required to make an after blessing (Berakha Aharonah) of 'Al HaGefen. If one mistakenly recited the after blessing of 'Al Hamihiya or 'Al Ha'es on the wine that he drank one will have fulfilled one's obligation Bediabad (after the fact).

The amount that one is required to drink in order to make the after Berakha, is a Rebi'ith. However there are those who say that if one drinks even a Kezayith of wine one must make an after blessing. Therefore, one should avoid drinking wine between a Kezayith and Rebi'ith.

If one ate grapes and drank wine, one must mention in his after Berakha both 'Al Ha'es for the grapes as well as 'Al HaGefen for the wine. If he only said 'Al Hagefen, but had in mind that it should cover the grapes as well, he will have fulfilled his obligation, after the fact.

(See Kaf Hahayim 208, Oth 79. Biur Halakha Siman 208)

ID: 294f0  No.3166

The Shulhan 'Arukh writes that raw meat is permitted to be moved on Shabbath and is not Muqseh. The reason he gives is that even though it would seem like it doesn't have any use on Shabbath, nevertheless, since it is fit for eating small amounts (it is clear from the Gemarah that in those days they would, at times, eat a little raw meat), therefore, it has a use and isn't Muqseh, even if one has no intention to eat from it.

The Maghen Abraham says this is only permitted in the case of soft meats, because only those are eaten raw. The Taz disagrees and is of the opinion that all meats are permitted to be moved.

The question arises that, whether these days, since people do not eat raw meat, does raw meat become Muqseh. There are those who opine that the ruling of the Shulhan 'Arukh still applies and meat is not Muqseh. This is the opinion of some Posqim, including Sefer Menuhath Ahaba and Sefer Hut Shani. Other Posqim rule that since these days raw meat doesn't have any use, it is Muqseh. This is the opinion of the Ben Ish Hai, the 'Arukh Hashulhan and Rav Moshe Feinstein.

(See Shulhan 'Arukh 308:31. Maghen Abraham, ibid., 51. Taz, ibid. 2. Be Ish Hai, 2nd year, Pequdei, Oth 9. 'Arukh HaShulhan 58. Iggeroth Moshe 5, 25)

ID: 294f0  No.3169

The Gemara in Masekheth Ta'anith tells us that just as we must minimize our rejoicing in the month of Ab, so too we should increase our happiness and rejoicing in the month of Adar. If one has a court case with a non jew he should refrain from having it in Ab and try having it in Adar. The question arises in a Shana Me'ubbereth (Jewish leap year), where we have two months of Adar, does adding to our rejoicing apply to the first Adar as well, or only to the second one which is the more important of the two.

There is a difference of opinion. Rabbi Haim Kanievsky is of the opinion that adding to our rejoicing applies to the first Adar as well. One of the proofs he brings is that the Mishna in Meghilla (6b) mentions differences between the first and second Adar, but doesn't specify "Marbim Besimha" (increasing enjoyment) as being one of them. Also, the Hatham Sofer signed a letter in his responsa on the first day of the first Adar, with the words that we add to our rejoicing. We see from this that his opinion was also that on the first Adar we add to our rejoicing.

On the other hand, there are others, including Rabbi Ya'aqob 'Emden, who rules, based on a Rashi on this Gemara of "Mishenikhnas Adar Marbim Besimha" (from when Adar enters, we increase our rejoicing), that it only applies to the second Adar. This is also the opinion of Rabbi Haim Phalagi in Mo'ed Lekhol Hai.

(See Hatham Sofer חו"מ סי' ב'. Mo'ed Lekhol Hai סי' ל"א אות נ"ב)

ID: 294f0  No.3173

If one ate a certain food and is uncertain if he had enough for the Berakha Ahronah (after blessing), he may not make an after blessing because of the general rule of Sefeq Berakhoth Lehaqel (when there is a doubt, we do not recite a blessing). The Shulhan 'Arukh writes that the same applies, even if it will not cause Hashem's Name to be said in vain.

When one eats the required quantity of grapes, one must make the after blessing of Me'ein Shalosh of 'Al Ha'es. If one drank a Rebi'ith of wine, one must make the after blessing of Me'ein Shalosh of 'Al HaGefen. He says if one ate grapes and now is obligated to make the after blessing of Me'ein Shalosh of 'Al Ha'es, but is not certain if he drank the required quantity of wine or not, he may not include 'Al Hagefen. Even though he is not saying Hashem's name any more times than he would have, since both 'Al HaGefen and 'Al Ha'Es are included in the same blessing, nevertheless, he may not include the wine since there is a doubt.

The Aharonim say, however, that initially he should not put himself in this situation but, after the fact, if he already is in doubt, then he should add it to the after blessing on the grapes. And indeed, even if he only drank a quantity of wine that put him into a doubt, he can, nevertheless, go ahead and eat the required quantity (Kezayith) of grapes, in order to add the 'Al HaGefen in his after Berakha.

(See שו"ע סי ר"ח סעיף מ"ב ס"ק פ"ב. כף החיים אות צ"א)

ID: 294f0  No.3178

וְיִקְחוּ אֵלֶיךָ שֶׁמֶן זַיִת זָךְ כָּתִית לַמָּאוֹר לְהַעֲלֹת נֵר תָּמִיד "And they shall take to you pure olive oil, beaten for the light, for the candle to burn always" (Shemoth 27:20). The Ba'al HaTurim writes that this Pasuq (verse) contains a hint to the amount of time that the Menorah burned in the two Batei HaMiqdash (Temples). The word כתית (Kathith) contains the letters ת"י and ת"כ, which have the numerical equivalent in Gematria of 420 and 410 respectively.

The burning of the Menorah was limited to the two Batei Miqdash. The first lasted 410 years and the second 420. In other words, the Menorah burned for a total of 830 years, which is the Gematria of Kathith.

It says in Toldoth Yis-haq (authored by the uncle of Maran Beth Yosef, z"l), that the burning of the Menorah will not be limited in the future, because the Third Temple will exist forever. There is a hint to this in the continuation of the Pasuq. It says "for the candle to burn always", to let us know that in the third Beth HaMiqdash the Menorah will burn for ever.

(See Dibrei Mordekhai, Parashath Tesawweh, Parparaoth)

ID: 294f0  No.3181

On Friday night, after the Qiddush, it is customary for the father to bless all the children, both young and old. This is done before Netilath Yadayim for HaMosi, however, some have the custom of blessing the children when they return home from Synagogue. Is it necessary for him to bless each of the children individually, or is it sufficient for him to recite one blessing and include all of them together?

It says in Qol Eliyahu that the ideal way of blessing the children is for the father to place his hands on the heads of each one of his children separately and to bless them. However, if he has many children and grandchildren and it is difficult for him to bless each one individually, it suffices to bless them all together, in the same way that the Kohanim bless the entire congregation.

It should be noted that the prevalent custom is to place both hands on the child's head. Some have the custom of placing only one hand. According to the Kabbalah, both hands should be placed on the child's head.

(See Kaf Hahayyim, 262:17. Qol Eliyahu 9:6)

ID: 294f0  No.3182

On Friday night, after the Qiddush, it is customary for the father to bless all the children, both young and old. This is done before Netilath Yadayim for HaMosi, however, some have the custom of blessing the children when they return home from Synagogue. Is it necessary for him to bless each of the children individually, or is it sufficient for him to recite one blessing and include all of them together?

It says in Qol Eliyahu that the ideal way of blessing the children is for the father to place his hands on the heads of each one of his children separately and to bless them. However, if he has many children and grandchildren and it is difficult for him to bless each one individually, it suffices to bless them all together, in the same way that the Kohanim bless the entire congregation.

It should be noted that the prevalent custom is to place both hands on the child's head. Some have the custom of placing only one hand. According to the Kabbalah, both hands should be placed on the child's head.

(See Kaf Hahayyim, 262:17. Qol Eliyahu 9:6)

ID: 294f0  No.3186

There is a difference of opinion as to whether women should recite the blessings of "Shello 'Asani Ghoy" and "Shello 'Asani 'Abed" in the masculine form, as do the men, or whether they should say it in the feminine gender (see http://www.atorahminute.com/2019-02-05 ). Rabbi Ya'aqob 'Emden, 'a"h, is of the opinion that these two blessings should be said by women in the same form as they are said by men. This is the prevalent custom among Ashkenazim.

The prevalent custom for Sephardim, however, is in accordance with the Ben Ish Hai. He rules that women should say, "Ghoyah" and "Shifhah", both in the feminine form. The blessing of "Shello 'Asani Isha", is different.

All agree that it is not possible for a woman to recite it in the same form as men and should say "She'asani Kirsono" (Who made me according to His will). However there is a difference of opinion as to whether the blessing should be recited with Shem Umalkhuth (G-d's Name and Kingdom), or not. Ashkenazim recite the complete blessing. The Sephardi custom is that that the women recite it without Shem Umalkhuth, but should simply have the Shem Umalkhuth in mind, at the appropriate place.

(See Ben Ish Hai, 1st year, Wayyesheb, Oth 10. 'Od Yosef Hai, ibid., Oth 9)

ID: 294f0  No.3191

The morning blessing of HaMa'abir appears to end with the words "HaMa'abir Shenah Me'einai Uthnuma Me'af'appai" (Who removes the bonds of sleep from my eyes and sleep from my eyelids). This is incorrect, however. In fact, the entire paragraph, including the Yehi Rason that comes next, ends with the blessing of "HaGomel Hasadim Tobim Le'ammo Yisrael" (Who does loving kindness to His people Israel).

In other words, this entire paragraph is, effectively, one long blessing. As such, if someone hears the blessing up to the words, "HaMa'abir Shenah Me'einai Uthnuma Me'af'appai", one should not answer "Amen". That is why the Yehi Rason that follows it, begins with the letter ו' (Waw [and]), to show that it is a continuation of the blessing that went before.

(See Shulhan 'Arukh 46:1. Ben Ish Hai, 1st year, Wayyesheb, Oth 11. 'Od Yosef Hai, ibid., Oth 9)

ID: 294f0  No.3195

Since the Jewish calendar is a combination of both lunar and solar, every nineteen years we have a Shanah Me'ubbereth (lit. pregnant year), seven times. In order to synchronize the lunar and solar calendars we add a month to our calendar. That month is always the month of Adar, and not any other month. The reason is that the Torah tells us that the following month, the month of Nisan, must always fall in the spring. Indeed, the Torah refers to it as Hodesh HaAbib (the month of spring). Therefore, the correction to the calendar is made just before it, to ensure that it corresponds with the spring.

Purim is always celebrated on the second Adar, in a Shanah Me'ubbereth. One reason is that on Purim we were redeemed through Queen Esther, 'a"h, and in Nissan we were redeemed from the servitude in Egypt. In order to place the two redemptions next to each other, Purim is celebrated on the second Adar.

Even though Purim is celebrated on the 14th of the second Adar, there are a few observances that apply to the same date in the first Adar. Tahanun is not recited on the 14th of the first Adar, nor on the 15th. Additionally, fasting and eulogies are prohibited. The exception is a eulogy for a Talmid Hakham (Torah scholar) at the funeral.

(See Meghillah 6b. Shulhan 'Arukh, O.H. 697:1. Sefer HaToda'ah, Adar Sheni)

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